Powerful Witchcraft Spells Revealed
In the Western world, during the Middle Ages, animals were considered to be totally utilitarian and any sentiment shown towards them was frowned upon. During the 16th and 17th century, companion animals were cited as evidence of witchcraft. The animals that were thought to be kept as 'familiars' during this period were frequently owned by elderly women who were socially deprived, thus suggesting that in reality these pets were kept for companionship (Robinson 1995). The indications are that dogs gradually worked their way into the affections of humans as a result of their working relationship as hunting dogs, but it is unlikely that they were bred as pets until relatively modern times. During the 18th century, the custom of keeping animals as companions was recognised in the Western world, but this practice was confined to wealthy citizens who could afford to keep non-working animals and were prepared to ignore the common view that showing affection towards animals was both unnatural...
Prudence, defined as the interaction between those who possessed medical knowledge and those who exercised legal authority, encompassed issues relating to criminal justice, public health, and the functions of public medical examiners and coroners. Physicians had provided testimony for centuries regarding cause of death, wounds, poisoning, and other matters (including signs of witchcraft). Furthermore, from at least the sixteenth century, they occasionally offered testimony on matters relating to madness and insanity in European courts.
Disease thus first appears in China embodied in dangerous others, as a menace from without. After the Shang dynasty, the focus of concern would broaden and shift from disgruntled ancestors to parasites and poisons, demons and witchcraft spells. But whomever or whatever the Chinese accused of inspiring sickness, the defining feature of the earliest conceptions of disease was their independence from a conception of the body. In other words, the peculiarities of an individual's somatic condition were no more relevant to understanding a fever or a toothache than they were for explaining why one's crops were destroyed in a storm. The fact that an affliction happened to attack the body was incidental. The vengeful spirits that brought sickness could just as easily have inflicted drought and famine.
With the invention of the voltaic battery, amateur and scientific galvanism grew in popularity during the nineteenth century (Fig. 3). According to some sources, it was considered fashionable for physicians who followed current research to carry canes with battery components hidden in special hollow compartments to allow quick assembly of a galvanic mechanism in case of an emergency. Along with these early precursors of portable defibrillators, the same time period saw the first precursors of do not resuscitate (DNR) orders people wary of being experimented upon by vigilante galvanists were known to sew labels into their clothing, bearing requests to be left unelectrified if fallen unconscious. Ever on the borderline between desire and discomfort, electric resuscitation continuously struggled for legitimacy in the public comprehension, against allegations of sorcery on one side and quackery on the other. Later in the nineteenth century, with several key authorities on toxicology...
Also incorporated elements from Celtic religions and Roman paganism 10 . All major, time-tested religions have proven their social acceptability and have generated major independent denominations. The explosion in the number of denominations can probably be traced to the Reformation. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), who initiated the Reformation in Switzerland, preached that the Bible is the absolute authority. The German theologian and leader of the Protestant Reformation Martin Luther (1483-1546) also accepted the Bible as the sole source of revelation. He believed that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone, and supported a universal priesthood of all believers.
More generally, tensions between opposing tendencies are manifest throughout Michelangelo's work, and they certainly energized his creativity. Perhaps most salient is the incompatibility of the paganism of classical antiquity versus Catholicism. This friction permeated the entire Renaissance, and in Michelangelo's case, it can also be cast in terms of his own likely homosexuality versus fear of damnation. Another tension, which his own career helped remedy, was the gulf between the lay perception of artists as manual laborers and his own view of art-making as a lofty, intellectual enterprise. Another, partly the result of his historical position, is the tension between the technical mastery of visual realism and the expressiveness that could be achieved by over-emphasizing some visual features - for Michelangelo, usually anatomical mass and movement, which grew in exaggeration during his career.
Traditional medicine practices are as varied as the societies of the world. Local practices for acute and chronic illnesses might include prayer, meditation, diets, fasting, massage, exercise, herbal remedies, acupuncture, skin scraping, and scarification. The concepts underlying these practices are also varied. Underlying principles of traditional therapies in some societies are related to the balance or homeostasis between negative (bad, dark, devil, etc) and positive (good, light, angels, etc) forces. Ayurvedic medicine is practiced throughout South Asia and roughly translates to knowledge of life. This common practice seeks to promote spiritual harmony based upon the theory that health exists when there is a balance between three fundamental bodily humors. Other concepts such as witchcraft or the evil eye are prominent in dozens of countries. The evil, or covetous, eye may be felt to be the cause of a curse, misfortune, or disease and various amulets, decorations, or procedures...
Homo sapiens seems to be anything but sapiens in relation to faith and religious beliefs. Our early ancestors may have started to have religious thoughts when the Neanderthals began to bury their dead in special positions. Burying a parent or a child is certainly a painful experience. It feels like a deep injustice, and makes us want to take good care of the dead, compelling us to ponder the meaning of life and death. The existence of these universal feelings suggests that religions would have been developed in the early stages of civilization by the most primitive and ignorant cultures, who still believed in magic, spirits, and witchcraft. As discussed below, people thought that being alive and moving, that is, being animated, meant having a soul.
During the first 200 years of European exploration and settlement of the Americas, native populations experienced catastrophic die-offs from the introduction of acute infectious diseases. Pinpointing which parasites were responsible for this decimation is not a simple matter. European knowledge of the infectious disease process was primitive in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, with the result that conquerors, settlers, and clergy were ill-prepared to describe the illnesses they witnessed. Statements that simply describe the death experience of native peoples are the most common. In the Roanoke documents of 1588, for instance, T. Hariot described native death from disease, but he attributed the outbreaks to witchcraft
During the Middle Ages, the literature on epilepsy propounded two contrasting views. On the one hand, the falling evil was bound to demoniac beliefs and theological speculations on the other, physicians clung to the idea of a definite natural disease. Little effort was made to force the issue, however physicians rarely discussed the theological aspects and seem, moreover, to have been unable to rid themselves of traditional definitions and explanations. By the end of the sixteenth century, this appears to have changed, the debate became open, involving the role of the devil, witchcraft, and various types of magical treatment. Despite many efforts to define epilepsy and classify types of seizures, little progress was made medically, although, gradually, the idea that epilepsy was a natural disease did gain more credence, especially after the Age of Enlightenment.
In general, the pharmacotherapy of chronic neuropathic pain falls somewhere between art and witchcraft. Drugs should supplement cognitive and behavioral therapies and physical therapy with conditioning exercises. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, acetaminophen, tramodol, oxycodone or an equivalent opiate are for breakthrough pain in concert with any drug trial. N-of-1 experiments most often start with anticonvulsant or antidepressant medications, depending on the anticipated tolerance of side effects, followed by baclofen or by a sympatholytic agent when RSD is diagnosed. The clinician may try two different classes of drugs that act by similar putative mechanisms to amplify their effect or may try using drugs that have several different mechanisms of action. If pain seems to be triggered by noxious inputs, clonidine is worth trying. Muscle relaxants, benzodiazepines, antihistamines, L-tryptophan to raise serotonin levels, levodopa, calcium channel blockers,...
Some observers have persisted in the assumption that anxiety symptoms are present in all cultures, arguing further that an absence of symptoms means only that anxiety is expressed in alternative ways. We saw this same logic with regard to cultures that appeared to have few signs of clinical depression. It has been reported that Yoruba Aboriginals experience certain fears concerning witchcraft, evil spirits, the dark, and strangers. At times, these fears express themselves in ways that resemble overt anxiety (e.g., sweating, agitation, shaking), but it has also been observed that these
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