Surviving World War III

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more...

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Second World War and the Navy

By the end of the Second World War, Hopper had become a lieutenant. She wished to remain on active duty in the regular navy, but this choice was not open to her. Her age was again the problem. Although she did have the option of returning to her faculty position at Vassar (with a promotion to professor), she chose instead to remain at Harvard to continue working with computers.

Is The Use Of Nuclear Weapons Permissible

In regard to condition (1), the main question is whether the intended use of nuclear weapons is permissible. Many have argued that it is never permissible to use nuclear weapons, even in self-defense. The reason, following just-war theory or related lines of argument, is that the destructive effects of the weapons are so vast that the use of the weapons would inevitably cause serious harm to innocent civilians, and that it is never permissible to cause such harm. Even if, the argument continues, the use of a single nuclear weapon would not cause serious harm to civilians, because the weapon was of a low yield and fired at an isolated area, still, given the vast number of existing nuclear weapons, the use of that one weapon would carry a serious risk of escalation, leading to the death of many civilians. Thus, the use of even one weapon would be impermissible. If this argument is sound, then, in the light of the permissibility principle, the testing of nuclear weapons is impermissible....

World War Ii Through The 1970s The Psychoanalytic Era

Although psychoanalytic ideas have been percolating in American psychology since Freud and Jung's visit to Clark University in 1909, the full impact of depth psychology on psychiatry had to await the massive exodus of psychoanalysts to England and America with the onslaught of World War II. As these energetic immigrants captivated American psychiatry with remarkable speed, there was a dramatic shift toward the psy-chodynamics of the mental apparatus, as well as the controversy that still surrounds talking cures. The overconfidence of this revolution, especially in the often successful treatment of war-trauma-induced neuroses, allowed new approaches such as clinical psychology to become established as a distinct discipline, along with the resulting proliferation of new psychotherapeutic ideas. Although we now recognize that certain psychotherapies can modify the executive functions of the brain concentrated primarily in frontal lobe areas (Baxter et al., 1992 Schwartz et al., 1996),...

The Second World

The question and answer mode of inquiry regarding psychopathology dates back to the 1930s when the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was constructed by a group of psychometricians at the University of Minnesota (Meehl and Hathaway, 1946 Dahlstrom et al., 1972). Although the MMPI was concerned with measuring personality rather than psychopathology per se, it is often thought of as the grandfather of psychiatric instrumentation, and numerous later efforts borrowed items from it. In this chapter, however, attention will mainly be given to the proliferation of instruments that has taken place since the Second World War. The needs and experiences of the Second World War led to the development of three scales that had profound influence on subsequent work. In the United States, these were the Cornell Selectee Index (CSI) (Weider et al., 1944) and the Army's Neuropsychiatric Screening Adjunct (NSA) (Star, 1950). In the United Kingdom, Eysenck (1947) developed the Maudsley...

Theoretical Model and Set of Processes

As noted earlier, analogical thinking involves set of process, including retrieval, mapping, evaluation and projecting ofinfer-ences. In many instances, when people use analogy to create, understand or solve problems in a target domain, they must first retrieve from memory information about a source domain that might be helpful. Thus it is of interest to try to determine what factors determine the likelihood of an analog being retrieved from memory. Having retrieved the source domain, the next step would be to map the corresponding objects and relations in the source and target domains to one another. This is not a trivial problem, because in domains of any degree of complexity there may be many possible mappings between the objects and relations. Consider the attempted persuasive analogy of likening the situation surrounding Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait to events leading up to World War II. The analogical argument in favor of US intervention mapped Iraq to Germany, Saddam Hussein...

Historical perspective

Probably the greatest factor to affect the equine population of the UK in the last century was that of the decline in the agricultural equine population from around 962 000 in 1921 to about 3757 in 1979. The sharpest fall was after the Second World War. By 1951 Britain was the only country in the world with more tractors than horses. However, despite the relentless mechanization and loss of our agricultural horses we

Theoretical Developments arid the Establishment of a Movement

Freud never hesitated to use his growing psychoanalytic understanding to address world events as well as human psychology and psychopathology. World War I with its unimaginable destruction and death, was transforming the world in which Freud was living and working as well as directly affecting his family (two sons served in, and survived, the war). He published papers on war and psychoanalysis, considering how psychoanalysis both had predicted the depth of human frailty and could offer a way to try to understand it. The incomprehensible death toll between 1914 and 1918 led Freud to attribute greater importance to aggression. Although his own aggressive wishes had never been absent from the record of his fantasies and dreams, Freud now placed aggression in a more prominent role. In 1920, in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, he proposed the idea of a deadi drive that diere is an urge in all living things toward death. This concept was never a well-accepted part of his theory and seemed to...

Three Giants Of The First Half Of The 20th Century

The three pioneers who set the stage for thinking throughout the modern phase of 20th-century psychiatry were Emil Kraepelin (1855-1926) in Germany, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) in Austria, and Adolph Meyer (1866-1950) in America. The influence of Kraepelin's perspective, derived from the successes of German neurology, has been most pervasive, yielding a lasting influence on our conceptualization of what a comprehensive psychiatry should look like. Kraepelin, now widely regarded as the titular father of biological psychiatry, started his academic work at Dorpat University at the edge of the German empire of medical science (now the University of Tartu, Estonia), where he wrote the first edition of his seminal Textbook of Psychiatry, which went through nine editions between 1883 and 1927. That contribution propelled him to Heidelberg and ultimately to Munich as the implicit leader of German psychiatry. Recognition of his seminal diagnostic and pathophysiological thinking remained...

Through the Looking Glass The Fortunes of the Sociology of Mental Health

Yet, neither does their dilettantish use of mental health and illness mean that the founders of the discipline have not influenced theory and empirical research in the sociology of mental health. Weber's basic ideas about the power of society to determine life chances, Marx's concern with the implications of economic exploitation for self-actualization, and Durkheim's analyses of social integration continue to shape influential research agendas in the Sociology of Mental Health (Weber, Gerth, & Mills, 1946). Rather, the relevant historical point is that early sociological interest in mental health, mental illness, and treatment reflected the major concerns that occupied the founders - the implications of the transition from agrarian to industrial society for individuals. Serious attention to mental health and illness, as topics in their own right, only began in the post-World War II boom that coincided both with the growth of the subfield of medical sociology and its link to the...

Denton Cooley Inventor and Pioneer Surgeon

Although he was interested in medicine, he was worried that the academic track to a medical degree was too difficult. This fear was put to rest when he achieved the highest grades in his college fraternity. Soon after, Cooley transferred into medicine and eventually graduated from Johns Hopkins Medical School. During World War II, he also interned at Johns Hopkins, training under Dr. Alfred Blalock, where he

Heart Surgeon and Public Servant in the USSR

Went to the city of Cherepovets, where I worked as a surgeon for a year before World War II broke out. They were recruiting to the military field hospital in Cherepovets, where there was a need for a chief surgeon. I was offered the spot and served in this hospital throughout the war.

The Nature of the Discipline

During the 30 years that followed Freud's death, there was a clearly defined mainstream that dominated North American psychoanalysis. Organizationally centered on the American Psychoanalytic Association and its institutes, linked closely with psychiatry and more broadly with the medical establishment,2 and led intellectually by the emigres who had fled Europe prior to World War II, psychoanalytic training, credentialng, and access to professional journals were all tightly controlled.

Glucose6Phosphate Dehydrogenase G6PD Deficiency

The first documented report of drug-induced (as opposed to fava-bean-induced) hemolytic anemia appeared in 1926 following the administration of the antimalarial drug pamaquine (Plasmoquine). During World War II, after the world's primary sources of quinine were captured by the Japanese, about 16,000 drugs were tested for antimalarial effectiveness. In 1944, an Army Medical Research Unit at the University of Chicago studying these potential antimalarial drugs encountered the problem of drug-induced anemia. Research by this group over the next decade elucidated the basic information on G6PD deficiency.

Settling in Pondicherry

In 1914, a French couple, Paul Richard and his wife, Mirra Alfassa, visited Pondicherry and soon became acquainted with Sri Aurobindo. Paul Richard invited Sri Aurobindo to join him in bringing out a new journal named Arya. The objective of the journal in Sri Aurobindo's words was, to feel out for the thought of the future, to help in shaping its foundations and to link it to the best and most vital thought of the past. By the time its first issue came out, the first World War started and soon after, the Richards had to return to France. This left the task of filling the 64 pages of the monthly journal to Sri Aurobindo, and he earnestly carried on with this responsibility for the next six years. He serialized many of his seminal writings in the pages of Arya. By the time he closed down the journal, he had completed almost all his major works including The Life Divine, The Synthesis of Yoga, The Human Cycle, The Ideal of Human Unity, The Secret of the Veda, Hymns to the Mystic Fire,...

Sociology and Psychiatry Some Paradigmatic Contrasts

The professional diversity within the community of researchers and practitioners notwithstanding, a decided trend toward biological psychiatry can be detected. This is a marked departure from its major intellectual underpinning prior to and following World War II, an era in which psychoanalysis in its many modes was a prominent approach in the search for causal factors (Menninger, 1948). This search typically looks to painful experiences within important interpersonal relationships, especially those involving the family. Its major therapeutic tool, of course, is the uncovering of one's significant past and its connection to current psychological problems. This self knowledge, in turn, is presumed to ease the psychic pain and whatever disordered emotions and behavior might be associated with it.

Social Change and the Production of Knowledge About Mental Disorder

In the early years of the 21st century, Mills' perspectives and assumptions are likely to appear quite impractical and quixotic. However, there were circumstances in the not-too-distant past that made the assumption of these heavy responsibilities by the larger society more acceptable than is currently the case. Included among these circumstances, it seems, was the sense, not always spoken, that no problem was so great that it was beyond our national capabilities or resources to repair it, nor was any goal so remote that it was beyond our ability to reach it. This kind of collective understanding was probably nurtured both by the emergence of the Nation from the Great Depression and the determined national effort and enormous accomplishments that eventually led us to emerge from World War II as a victorious super power. It was further buttressed by the economic expansion that took place following the War. There was at the time of this era a spirit of collective empowerment and a...

The Implosion Moves Outward

Perhaps a more important transportation development was the mass production of the motor vehicle, which spread throughout the population, particularly the economically stable working and middle social classes, in the period after 1920, that is, roughly the years after World War I (Hawley 1978). Individuals and families could now live at some distance from various activities but be within reasonable commuting distance. While the streetcar oriented many activities to the downtown, the motor vehicle with its more flexible routes encouraged the development of numerous subcenters outside the traditional downtown. The most dramatic outward expansion of urban concentrations occurred after World War II ended (Guest 1975 Hawley 1978 Tobin 1976). Furthermore, growth was sprawling, creating extensive geographical regions where much of the population lived at low densities. Even in comparison to the 1920s and 1930s, automobile ownership increased greatly in importance, influenced partly by the...

Changing Suburban Development

Certainly, many central cities have emerged from their depressed years in the early post-World War II period. The 2000 census shows that a number of central cities, especially older places in the Northeast and Midwest, experienced patterns of population increase (albeit often small) in the 1990s compared to the 1980s (New York Times 2001c, 2001d). A number of central city downtown areas have begun to prosper as they have assumed important roles in specialized employment niches such as convention Another important factor in considering suburban versus central city growth is the explosive development of diverse employment activities in suburban rings (Bourne 1996). Whereas early post-World War II suburbanization heavily involved residences that were tied to central city workplaces, more recent years have seen the creation of major peripheral employment centers. This has involved high rates of job relocation from central cities to suburbs and the creation of many new job opportunities,...

The Patient with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

For many years, PTSD was considered only a wartime affliction. During World War I, PTSD was called ''shell shock,'' and during World War II, it was referred to as ''combat fatigue.'' After the Vietnam War, it was often mistakenly called the ''post-Vietnam syndrome.'' It has been estimated that 15 of 500,000 veterans of the Vietnam War are affected with PTSD. These patients have a variety of symptoms, including nightmares, sleep disturbances, avoidance reactions, guilt, intrusive memories, and dissociative flashbacks. In addition, as much as 9 to 10 of the U.S. population may have some form of PTSD. Almost 18 of 10 million women who were victims of physical assault have PTSD. Studies have shown that PTSD develops in 2 of people exposed to any type of accident, 30 of those exposed to a community disaster, 25 of those who have experienced traumatic bereavement, 65 of those experiencing nonsexual assault, 85 of battered women in shelters, and 50 to 90 of those who were raped. Of all...

Suburban Growth Slowing Or Roaring

To chart the general dimensions of suburban growth in the last part of the 20th century, designated central cities are compared with their total suburban rings for metropolitan areas in each decade between 1960 and 2000. While some of the analysis in this chapter concentrates on the period since 1970, inclusion of 1960 in the analysis of growth provides some comparative perspective with the heyday of post-World War II suburbanization. The data focus on the census-designated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) with total populations of at least 250,000 in 2000, an admittedly arbitrary threshold but one suggesting large-scale urbanization. While 163 such areas were recognized in the 2000 census, two could not be included because they lacked the requisite data for 1960. Since the development of the census-designated metropolitan area in the 1940s, numerous changes in the specific definitions and their parts have occurred, although many of the basic conceptions remained fixed. Literal...

Population Decline Amidst Suburban Growth

Guest's (1979) research on population loss for individual suburbs in the three time periods of 1950 to 1960, 1960 to 1970, and 1970 to 1975 serves as a model for analyzing recent decades. He found a dramatic temporal increase in the number of suburbs that lost population consistent with early post-World War II images of suburbia, loss was quite rare in the 1950s and 1960s, but by the 1970s occurred in about one-third of the suburban communities.

Occupational Diseases

In recent years, occupational diseases have become an area of intense interest to medicine, public health, industry, and labor. Whole new areas of medical and public health specialization have developed since the end of World War II, partly in response to the detection of carcinogens in the workplace, dust in the air that workers breathe, and human-made chemicals that workers touch, taste, or inhale. Black lung (coal workers' pneumoconiosis), brown lung (byssinosis), and white lung (asbestosis) are three industry-specific diseases that have gained international attention and highlighted the role of occupation in the creation of illness. Laborers as well as physicians have become acutely aware of the dangers posed by substances and materials at work in a host of industries from steel to petrochemicals. It was also in the 1920s that women who worked in factories producing luminous watch dials in New Jersey were found to have symptoms of chronic radiation poisoning. This prompted...

Revolutions in science

The general acceptance of Meitner and Frisch's interpretation of the Berlin experiments also called into question an entire class of previously accepted research results that had seemed to establish the existence of a whole class of transuranic elements. These 'discoveries' had been made by Fermi's research group, and others, in earlier neutron bombardment experiments. After the general acceptance of Meitner and Frisch's proposal, all such experiments had to be reevaluated. In the opening stages of the Second World War, the previous results on transuranic elements were retracted, and the discovery of transuranics was recertified, on the basis of the work of Seaborg and Segre, between 1939 and 1942 (Seaborg 1989).

Milk genomics a contemporary approach to milk composition

Milk has been a subject for nutrition and dairy science research over many years, but especially during the post Second World War period, when it received significant support from the British government for its role as a major source of public nutrition. Increasingly, milk is the source of animal protein of choice worldwide because of its ease of handling. Industrial processing of milk into dairy products has been based largely on the insights into milk chemistry that arose from seminal studies conducted during this period. These studies were concerned primarily with nutritional and processing properties of major milk proteins. Recent advances in bovine genomics now extend the capacity to analyze milk at a more detailed level, to provide a basis to understand the properties of milk proteins and, along with parallel advances in

Diseases and the European Mortality Decline 17001900

In general, writers before Carr-Saunders had taken a similarly broad approach. After World War II, however, the situation changed. In an article on a century of international mortality trends, George Stolnitz (1955) observed the following The measurable reduction in mortality rates following the introduction of antibiotics and pesticides led not only to revisionist views of the past accomplishments of medical technology. It led as well to a major reshaping of the biomedical research and education establishment in the United States in the decades following World War II, at a time when the United States had emerged as the dominant force in scientific research in the West.

Overview of Disease in Africa Since 1860

Non-Eurocentric accounts of diseases and health conditions among African populations are rare for the earlier period, and those dating from World War II are also limited in number and scope. Nearly all Europeans in Africa explorers, traders, missionaries, or colonials - were concerned primarily with the diseases that threatened their own health, and this must be borne in mind by anyone looking at early accounts of diseases of Africa. The two world wars compounded the burden of colonial labor and production for African populations. The wars were also periods of nutritional deprivation for millions of people. Thousands of men were recruited into military service, and disease and death were rife. Mass recruitment programs during the First World War revealed the poor state of African health to colonial authorities, and as a consequence plans were launched to provide medical services to the masses. The emphasis remained, however, on the curative as opposed to the preventive approach.

Retrieval and Mapping

The sense that multiple constraints converge on a solution that satisfies as many different constraints as possible (Thagard, 2000). Everyday use of analogies depends on the human ability to find coherent mappings -even when source and target are complex and the mappings are ambiguous. For example, political debate often makes use of analogies between prior situations and some current controversy (Blanchette & Dunbar, 2001, 2002). Ever since World War II, politicians in the United States and elsewhere have periodically argued that some military intervention was justified because the current situation was analogous to that leading to World War II. A commonsensical mental representation of World War II, the source analog, amounts to a story figuring an evil villain, Hitler misguided appeasers, such as Neville Chamberlain and clearsighted heroes, such as Winston Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The countries involved in World War II included the villains, Germany and Japan the...

Chaplins Life and Work

Chaplin's first dialogue picture, The Great Dictator (1940), was an act of defiance against German dictator Adolf Hitler, Nazism, Anti-Semitism and Fascism. It was filmed and released in the United States one year before the United States abandoned its policy of neutrality to enter the second World War. Chaplin exploited the similarities between Hitler and The Tramp (especially the little moustache). He played the role of Adenoid Hynkel, Dictator of Tomania, clearly modeled on Hitler. The film was seen as an act of courage in the political environment of the time, both for its ridicule of Nazism and for the depiction of Jewish persecution. Chaplin was nominated for best writing and best acting Academy Awards for The Great Dictator, but he did not win.

Il etait cense etre It Was Meant to Be

Julia believed and often said that the Second World War changed her life. As America became more entrenched in the war, Julia desired to support the war effort. Julia did not share her father's Republican political views, and was a loyal and enthusiastic democrat. She moved from California to Washington, DC and applied for positions with the WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Military Service) and the WACs (Women's Army Corps). She was disqualified from a position in either service organization because of her height, but would not be deterred, and accepted a job as a typist in the Office of War Information. de-classified by the National Archives and it was revealed that Julia did indeed work as a spy for the OSS during the Second World War. She worked as part of a large spy network created by President Roosevelt, which was precursor to the organization known today as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It was in this capacity that she was sent on an overseas assignment in 1944....

Conceptualizing the Therapeutic Process

If we broaden our understanding of social control to fully grasp the meaning of Foucault's analysis, however, it would be misleading to argue that contemporary therapeutic practices, even if they do take the forms that Cushman suggests, do not function as instruments of social control. Cushman himself draws upon Foucault's thinking as one of the key theoretical foundations of his work Foucault's key insight is, for him, that each era produces a particular configuration of self and corresponding kinds of psychopathology (Cushman, 1990, p. 600). The empty self is constructed by and contributes to the maintenance of a consumer-driven post World War II economy, thus illustrating rather than contradicting Foucault's perspective. While psychotherapists may see themselves as responding to and working to heal the individual's psychic emptiness, Cushman argues that psy-chotherapies (like advertising) also contribute mightily to reinforcing the conception and experience of the self as empty.

Delayed effects following an acute exposure

Most studies of survivors of World War I gassing incidents have reported a high incidence of acute respiratory damage and a lower incidence of chronic sequelae following acute exposure (Ayres and Baxter 2004). Similar sequelae have also been reported for individuals following acute exposure to the accidental release of chlorine gas, with the most consistently reported chronic effect being a reduction in the forced expiratory volume (FEV) (IPCS 1999a).

Levels Of Causation A Historical Overview

The next transition, to the Chronic Disease Era, was largely motivated by the changing health profile of developed countries in the mid-twentieth century (Susser, 1985 Morris, 1957 MacMahon et al., 1960). Infectious diseases were declining rapidly, whereas apparently noninfectious chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer were increasing at an alarming rate. Infectious disease methods could not address the challenges presented by these frightening new causes of morbidity and mortality. Within a very short period after World War II, the discipline was again redefined, and its methodology transformed. The signal event was the demonstration that smoking was a cause a risk factor'' for lung cancer, using cohort and case - control designs developed for the purpose (Doll and Hill, 1950). Subsequently the notion of the risk factor became common parlance among epidemiologists, and these designs became standard methodology for investigating risk factors, especially individual...

First Half of the Twentieth Century

The First World War called for a mass mobilization of men and materiel. Men had to be assessed quickly and placed where individual abilities could best be utilized. The testing of individual abilities grew out of this need, which would occur again during the Second World War. The need for creativity can be illustrated by the fact that the employee suggestion system first used in Scotland in 1880 by shipbuilder William Denny was first utilized in the United States by the Navy in 1918. The massive mobilization of the Second World War included the scientific community as well as industry. The damage done by Germany's rockets, its progress toward an atom bomb, and finally, America's successful development of an atom bomb all highlighted the need for creativity. After the Second World War America's industry expanded, in part, because Europe's industrial ability had been destroyed. Creativity continued to be needed and to be a topic of study.

The Zeitgeist and the Individual

One of the most repressive Zeitgeists to be found historically is the society headed by the Nazis in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s. Many works of art, including paintings and musical compositions, were banned. The Nazi government sponsored art shows that displayed 'decadent' art (the artist teacher Paul Klee was included). Many famous people, including Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, and the composer Richard Strauss, fled Germany to avoid persecution. In fact, German scientists who fled Germany played a pivotal role in developing military technology that helped win the Second World War for the United States and its allies.

The Social Context of Creativity

Evidence that societal goals and cultural values influence the focus of creative endeavor was put forward by Razik who argued that economic needs and the political situation have tended to influence assumptions about creativity. He pointed out that in the United States even though the Progressive Education Movement, which focused attention on the creative qualities of children, was widespread as early as the 1930s, it was only after the Second World War in the presence of the Russian threat, creativity could not be left to the chance occurrence of the genius it had to be a property in many men Razik stated that it was when the need for creative individuals was great, that people began to entertain the possibility that perhaps anyone could be creative and that creativity was amenable to education. Cropley described how in the United States, the National Defence Education Act adopted a concept of creativity which went beyond its earlier aesthetic definition, to one in which creativity...

Experimental Techniques

The microwave region has its own methods of generating, detecting, and measuring microwave radiation. During World War II considerable work was done to develop microwave radar systems. This led to new sources the klystron and other hardware associated with the propagation and measurement of microwaves. After the war, this provided the impetus for a rapid development of microwave spectroscopy as an area of study.

Is It Enough Simply to be Different

Shortly after the Second World War, researchers concluded that the only constant factor in virtually all discussions of creativity is novelty. Novelty was later defined by Jerome Bruner in a more psychological way as the achieving of'surprise' in the beholder. However, subsequent discussions made the important point that surprisingness alone is not sufficient for creativity.

Other clostridial diseases

Other forms of necrotizing enteritis have occurred endemically in New Guinea (pigbel37), epidemically in Germany following World War II (Darmbrand38), and sporadically in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the United States (see Chapter 12).19'20 All cases are associated with the ingestion of meats contaminated with C. perfringens type C. Clinical courses vary between abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea which resolve spontaneously, to bloody diarrhea, ruptured bowel, and death (3-toxin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these infections. The toxin paralyzes the intestinal villi, and causes friability and necrosis of the bowel wall. Predisposing factors include malnutrition, specifically in patients with diets low in protein and rich in trypsin inhibitors such as sweet potato or soy bean.37'38 Ascaris lumbricoides is commonly found in such patients and it, too, secretes a trypsin inhibitor. These protease inhibitors protect (i-toxin from intraluminal proteolysis.

How Many Elemental Instincts

Freud's 1920 paper Beyond the Pleasure Principle had many aims, chief among them his wish to find a place for aggression as a primary human urge, motivator, or instinct, having earlier thought of it as an aspect of the sexual drive. Sadism is an example. Yet clinical observation and probably also Freud's experience of the destruction wrought by World War II had led him to posit aggression as a second elemental instinct alongside sexuality. This revision, Freud's dual instinct theory, contrasted with his earlier single instinct theory (libido alone). The dual instinct theory has remained a cornerstone of the classical point of view.

Anticipating the Audiences Bias

Sometimes, the initial bias of an audience is the overriding factor in determining the success of a presentation. Contrast the failed one-on-one presentation of Niels Bohr with Winston Churchill in 1944 with the surprisingly successful one-on-one presentation of Edward Teller with President Reagan in 1982. In Bohr's meeting with Churchill, his purpose was to have Churchill realize the potential nuclear weapons race that Bohr anticipated would follow the Second World War. However, Churchill, already defensive about his decision to relinquish intellectual rights to nuclear weapons, ended the meeting after only twenty minutes and asked Bohr to leave.10 The purpose of Teller's meeting with Reagan was to persuade him to change the United States nuclear weapons policy of mutually assured destruction to a policy of a strategic defense initiative. Given the resistance in the military to such a change and doubts by other scientists such as Hans Bethe as to the potential of the initiative, such...

Suggested Readings

The concept of compensation for psychiatric damages, mental damages, or psychic trauma, as it is called in various settings, has evolved over time. Railway spines and brains (Weisaeth 2002) led physicians to explore the interplay of physical injury and nervous symptoms (Harrington 2003). The connection between physical injury and psychological symptoms reemerged in the World War I phenomenon of shell shock, and it evolved throughout the twentieth century history of warfare through the internecine neurasthenia, World War Il's psychoneuroses, and finally to the post-Vietnam era posttraumatic stress disorder. With the publication of DSM-IV, the concept of physical injury, or even the threat of physical injury causing psychic damage was expanded from the battlefield and broadened to include a wide range of potentially traumatic experiences.

Usability Ergonomics and Interfaces

During World War II it became apparent that the effectiveness of service men depended strongly on the ease of use of the increasingly complex equipment on which they had to depend. This led to the study of anthropomorphics - the measurement of the size and shape of the human body - and of human bio-mechanics -

Life Course Perspectives Key Principles

Relatively little research to date has examined the effects of long-term patterns of human agency on mental health outcomes. An example of life course research that examines the impact of individual decision-making on mental health outcomes is Elder's studies of individuals who made the transition to adulthood during World War II. The decision of World War II veterans to use the GI Bill to obtain advanced education proved to be a milestone in terms of both socioeconomic achievements and mental health throughout adulthood (e.g., Laub & Sampson, 2005). Clearly, however, this is a component of the cross-fertilization of life course and mental health research that merits increased attention.

The Persisting Effects of Early Traumas and Adversities

Traumas experienced after childhood also can be potent risk factors for mental health problems both immediately after the trauma and many years later. The most frequently studied adult trauma is combat exposure during war. By now, veterans of three major wars have been studied over varying lengths of time World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. There is strong and consistent evidence linking combat exposure to subsequent mental health problems, including PTSD, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse problems (Clipp et al., 1992 Cui & Vaillant, 1996 Elder et al., 1994 Kulka, Schlenger, Fairbank, Hough, Jordan, Marmar, & Weiss, 1990 Lee et al., 1995). Moreover, the increased risk of mental health problems among combat veterans remains as much as 50-60 years later.

Pathology Of Clostridial Myonecrosis

Descriptions of gangrenous infections with gas in the tissues date to the Middle Ages. World War I surgeons stationed at the allied casualty clearing stations recognized that wounds which severed main blood vessels were associated with massive or 'group' gangrene, which meant that bacterial proliferation and muscle destruction easily and rapidly ensued throughout all muscle groups which had been cut off from the blood supply.3 However, it was the careful observations of McNee and Dunn that provided insight into the mechanisms whereby gas gangrene advanced into healthy tissue Impressed by the natural course of this infection they wrote, '. . . the rapidity of spread of gas gangrene into living muscle, once the disease has begun, is so remarkable as to demand some definite explanation'.3 Their 1917 report in the British Medical Journal attempted to provide that explanation based on the histopathology of serial sections of single muscle bundles from freshly amputated limbs of soldiers...

Clinical Instruments The United States

The main pre-World War II instrument used in psychiatric clinics was the MMPI. Like the other scales described here, it consisted of questions to be answered by the patients themselves. After the war, Lorr et al. (1952) developed a Multidimensional Scale for Rating Psychiatric Patients that, like the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale that came later (Overall and Gorham, 1962), was a guide for clinicians to assess patients rather than a series of direct questions. The first post-war instrument for use in psychiatric clinics that is of the genre described here was one developed by a group of researchers in the Department of Psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins Medical School.

Ella Fitzgerald and Improvisation

In summary, Ella Fitzgerald's life as a creator is an interesting and evocative reprise of the jazz history of the twentieth-century. Born in the First World War, she welcomed the popularization of radio and learned her first licks from harmony singers and jazz trumpeters. She danced with her childhood friends to the music of the twenties, and sang when she could not dance. She was confirmed into the sound of swing and moved it along with her own interpretations. She moved from the 78 to the 33 1 3 and the 45 and commanded the 8-track, cassette, and the CD. She was a pioneer in bebop and segued into and out of pop all the while retaining the respect of both jazz and pop. She backed into rock and died before rap. All the while she entertained.

Military applications

Tactical clothing is another area where plasma processing is being used to provide high performance protection against oil and contamination by hazardous liquids. Designed to withstand the most challenging conditions, clothing and footwear designed for the military requires maximum levels of barrier performance against toxic liquids and vapours, including chemical and biological warfare agents, which typically have low surface tension.

Heart Related Diseases

This conceptual change was particularly apparent regarding a military ailment once called DaCosta's syndrome and later - at the start of World War I - soldier's heart. Afflicted by breathlessness and a feeling of impending doom, soldiers with this syndrome were initially

Introduction A Background

Enteritis necroticans (EN) is a clostridial enterotoxaemia of man caused by Clostridium perfringens type C. It was first recognized as a major health problem in Europe at the end of World War II. In north-eastern Germany EN was called darmbrand. There was an epidemic in the area around L beck lasting from 1944 to 1949 this was carefully studied1 and the causative role of C. perfringens type C recognized.2 Subsequently, EN has been recognized in Africa, the Indian subcontinent and South-east Asia. However, it was the recognition of endemic EN in the highland areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG) in 1961,3 that rekindled interest in the disease. Subsequent work in PNG led to some understanding of this very interesting disease, the pathogenesis of which is a result of the interplay of characteristics of the organism, of its -toxin and of the way of life of the Highland subsistence farming community it affects.4 'Pigbel', as EN is known in PNG, was a very common disease, second only to...

Introduction disposable versus reusable

The current divide on disposable reusable medical textiles pertains to a larger dilemma of how to protect individuals from biological and chemical agents. Surgeons and their assistants, for example, have worn protective clothing since the nineteenth century (Laufman et al., 2000). Gowns and drapes, initially made of cotton, over time were constructed into more tightly woven fabrics, which were eventually treated with fluid-repellent chemicals. During the Second World War,

Hopper in the Private Sector

When Hopper was discharged from the navy at the close of the Second World War, she remained at Harvard so that she could continue working with computers. Over the next few years, she, along with the other members of the team, worked on the Mack 2 and the Mack 3, the successors of the gadget she had found so appealing in 1944. Because remaining at Harvard was not a viable option for the long term, though, Hopper moved into the private sector, going to work for the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation she remained with this company, through mergers and takeovers and the accompanying name changes, until her 1971 retirement from what had become the Sperry Corporation. By 1971, of course, she had for several years been back on active duty as a naval officer.

Massage Using Essential Oils

Massage has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine in India as well as in China and shiatsu, acupressure, reflexology, and many other contemporary techniques have their roots in these sources. Massage was used for conventional therapeutic purposes in hospitals before World War II and is still used by physiotherapists for various conditions including sports injuries.

Methodological Approaches

The third type of epidemiologic study of schizophrenia combines modern community sampling techniques with structured diagnostic interviews (C in Table 1). The earliest such studies were conducted by psychiatrists in Europe starting before World War II (Jablensky, 1986). The first large-scale community study in the United States to administer a diagnostic interview in the community was the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study, in which lay interviewers were trained to administer the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) (Robins and Regier, 1991). Unfortunately, the DIS diagnosis of schizophrenia was not congruent with psychiatrists' classification. For example, in the Baltimore ECA site, the DIS identified only 20 of the cases of schizophrenia that a psychiatrist diagnosed in an independent examination (Anthony et al., 1985). As a consequence, ten years later, when Kessler et al. (1994) conducted the National Comorbidity Survey, a two-stage procedure for case identification was...

Highly related organizational characteristic

Some of the strongest organizational characteristics that improve innovation are increased specialization, external communication, functional differentiation, and technical knowledge resources. As can be seen, many of these factors are similar to team and individual level factors that promote innovation with knowledge, communication, and idea diversity appearing in some form at all levels. Similarly, centralization is one ofthe strongest organizational inhibitors of innovation. This characteristic also shows similarities to how authoritarian leadership can inhibit innovation at the team level, and rigidity of thinking can diminish it at the individual level. A common thread among these characteristics appears to be that the influx of new ideas coupled with the ability and opportunity to act on them promotes innovation at all levels. Such seems to have been the case with Japanese manufacturing firms after World War II. In this situation, the firms readily adopted new manufacturing...

Use Of Pure Or Synthetic Components

Does it really matter whether the essential oil is pure or a synthetic mixture as long as the odor is the same The perfumers certainly do not see any difference, and even prefer the synthetics as they remain constant. Many of the so-called pure essential oils used today are, however, adulterated (Which Report, 2001 Lis-Balchin et al., 1996, 1998). There is often a difference in the proportion of different enantiomers of individual components that often have different odors and different biological properties (Lis-Balchin, 2002a, 2002b). This was not, however, appreciated by Gattefosse (1937 1993), who worked with perfumes and not with the pure plant essential oils (Formulaires de Parfumerie Gattefosse, 1906). He studied the antimicrobial and wound-healing properties of essential oils on soldiers during World War I (Arnould-Taylor, 1981). He later worked in hospitals on the use of perfumes and essential oils as antiseptics and other (unstated) applications, and also in dermatology,...

Specific Contributions From Attachment Theory and Research

The terms attachment and attachment theory refer to a specific body of theory and research that began with John Bowlby's (1969, 1980, 1988) seminal work of the first post-World War II decades. Drawing on primate research and direct observation of young children, he asserted that the child's tie to its parents or other caregivers is a primary, autonomous system rather than secondary to the drives and phantasies that traditional Freudians had held to be the core motivations. Bowrlby went on to reformulate the analytic theories of separation and defense in accord with emerging regulatory systems models, stressing the importance of affects, especially fear. Bowlby also proposed that parental care is a core requirement for species reproduction, embedding social motivation in a broader evolutionary-biological perspective.

History of Vocational Interest Inventories

The prototype for the interest inventory had its beginnings after World War I at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, where Clarence S. Loakum was developing psychological tests for army use. The first widely used inventory, the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB), was developed in 1927 by E. K. Strong, Jr., to help individuals exiting the military find suitable jobs. The development of the SVIB is historically important because it is the most widely used model and the oldest interest inventory in continuous use.

Historical Background

Malingering has been used as a war tactic. During World War II, the British dropped pamphlets over German troops, instructing them on how to malinger in order to obtain military leave (Richards, in press). Currently, a German CD-ROM entitled the Krankheits-Simulator (Sickness Simulator) is available for purchase on the Internet the program instructs employees on how to malinger in order to obtain sick leave (German Employers Ill Over CD Showing How to Fake for Sick Days 2001).

Methadone Maintenance

Developed in Germany at the end of World War II, methadone has been used since the early 1960s to treat addictions to Demerol, heroin, morphine and Di-laudid. Administered orally as a syrup, it has the same properties as heroin and morphine. This effective HR tool brings drug users into the community instead of treating them like criminal outsiders. Unlike heroin addicts, methadone users are not involved in antisocial behaviors (Mattick, Ward, & Hall, 1998).

The Psychological Challenge Of Religious Surrogacy

An analysis of Japanese culture sheds further light on the indefatigable quality of religion. After World War II, Shintoism came under attack for its role in promoting the type of militarism that led Japan into war. Other religions, in particular Buddhism, were also greatly depreciated in the years following the war. To this day, Japan has one of the lowest rates of religious belief and participation in the world upon closer inspection, however, it soon becomes clear that it has one of the highest rates of cult participation. Not long ago, Japan's extremist Aum Supreme Truth cult made the news as a result of Tokyo subway gas attacks. At the time of the attacks, that particular cult had only ten thousand followers, but the Aum Supreme Truth cult is only one of over three hundred cults in Japan, of which the largest has a membership in the millions.17

Conceptual Frameworks

Historical demography has hugely contributed to a better understanding of underlying structures and tendencies over the long run. Because of that focus, it fit well in what became an important school of historians in the post-World War II period the French Annales school and its followers all over the world. The new history of population was ''serial'' history, as opposed to ''evential'' history. To the extent that population structure and change influence economy and society, they have provided an indispensable backcloth for the description of the human past. The lasting impact of demography on history, after the initial excitement with technical innovations such as family reconstitution, has been in providing a window on the social structure of the past and on the dynamics of economic growth, urbanization, and consumption patterns. In turn, specialized areas of history, such as the history of technology, of disease, and of contraception, have proven indispensable for an...

Chemical biological radiological and nuclear agents

Chemical warfare agents have conventionally been considered along with biological and nuclear weapons as 'weapons of mass destruction'. A biological agent may be defined as a self-replicating organism (e.g. bacteria or viruses) deliberately released to cause harm to humans by infection. This results in a deliberate, calculated epidemic. Nuclear weapons cause harm by a massively powerful explosion, which is accompanied by the release of large quantities of radiation and radioisotope contamination. After World War II, chemical weapons were classified along with biological and nuclear devices as nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) agents. This classification has now been expanded to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons (CBRN) to include radioisotopes that may be released deliberately using a small conventional explosive charge. It is important to realise that all CBRN weapons do not cause casualties in the same way. Chemical and biological agents are quite...

Poisoning in peace and war

The use of chemicals in warfare had been considered for many centuries but it was not until World War I that mass release of chemical was used as part of military activity. Over 113,000 tons of chemicals were used in that war. Mass casualties were often caused when there was an element of surprise. The first major chemical attack was on 22 April 1915, when chlorine released as a cloud caused 15,000 Allied wounded, with 5000 fatalities. However, with the introduction of protective masks such mass fatalities were not usually repeated. The Russians, however, who had little or no protection, suffered over 500,000 casualties from chemical warfare, a fact that had great bearing on the subsequent organization of their army. Box 17.1 outlines the development of chemical agents. Early chemical attacks in World War I probably fuelled the idea of chemical agents being weapons of mass destruction. In fact the ratio of dead to wounded was less than 8 and was lower than for any other weapon systems...

Job Autonomy and Enrichment

The following example illustrates the importance of job autonomy. While working with the anthropologist Margaret Mead during the Second World War, Kurt Lewin was asked to help reduce civilian consumption of rationed foods, mainly meat. Even though traditional meats were scarce, families resisted trying nonscarce meats such as beef hearts, sweetbreads, and kidneys. Knowing that housewives were the shoppers and preparers of food, Lewin reasoned that if they were provided with new information and allowed to participate in deciding what to do, they would be more likely to change their shopping habits and prepare meals with nonscarce meats. To test his hypothesis, Lewin set up a controlled experiment with several groups of housewives. In one group, a nutrition expert lectured the group on the facts as well as the benefits of

The Frankfurt Schools Critique

The central text of the Frankfurt School for our purposes is Dialectic of Enlightenment. This was written during the Second World War by Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer (the latter coining the phrase ''critique of instrumental reason''). A highly unusual work, Dialectic is best approached as presenting a certain history of reason.

Lung damaging agents pulmonary oedemagens

Lung-damaging agents were used as chemical weapons during World War I. Chlorine was first used in 1915 and was followed by phosgene, the properties of which are described in Box 17.5. These agents caused both upper and lower damage to the airways and lungs, and were fatal due to the onset of pulmonary oedema, where the lung alveoli fill with fluid and normal oxygenation of the blood fails. Lung-damaging agents were eclipsed during the Cold War by more toxic agents such as nerve agents but a new threat arose from per-fluoro isobutylene (PFIB), which is known in the civil context as a by-product of heating Teflon.

Geography and Epidemiology

On the face of it, stronger evidence comes from the study of apparent clusters of cases in the Faroe Islands in the North Sea. No cases had been identified in the Faroe Islands prior to World War II. But between 1943 and 1973, there were 32 cases there have been no new cases since. Although it cannot be certain that cases prior to 1943 were not missed, the balance of evidence is in favor of there being an unusual run of them in the 30 years after that date. J. F. Kurtzke and K. Hyllested (1986) have analyzed the data minutely and have suggested that there were two mini-epidemics within the main one. In addition, they have pointed out that the pattern of presentation of the cases suggests a point source epidemic and, noting that the places of residence of the patients were close to the location of army camps during World War II, have proposed that an infection was introduced by the British troops occupying the islands during that period. C. M. Poser and P. L. Hibberd (1988) have...

History of CB warfare and current threats

Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas (also known as blistering agents) were used in World War I (WWI). There were over a million casualties with approximately 90,000 deaths. CWAs were not used during World War II (WWII) presumably for fear of retaliation, and because CB agents are not easy to control on the battlefield. A sudden shift of wind direction could potentially harm or slow down the advancing army that deployed the agents.2 Many countries still resorted to the use of CWAs over the years, some examples include the following historical records Italy sprayed mustard gas from aircraft against Ethiopia in 1935 Japan used CWAs when they invaded China in 1936 Egypt used phosgene and mustard gas bombs in the The Aum Shinrikyo cult used Sarin nerve agent to terrorize Matsumoto city in 1994, and attacked the Tokyo subway system in 1995. The Tokyo subway incident injured about 5,000 and killed 12 people. On 23 October 2002, 115 people died as a...

The neural bases of abstraction

Kurt Goldstein studied brain injuries that occurred during the First World War 15 . His patients were otherwise healthy, because their wounds had healed, so he was able to follow them for up to 8 years. Goldstein put forward the idea that patients with severe lesions of the frontal lobes lose their abstract attitude or the capacity to deal with abstract thoughts, and show an impairment of the capacity to comprehend the essential features of an event. The English neurologist Henry Head also described similar changes as a disturbance of the patients' symbolic expression. In addition, frontal lobe patients show deep changes in personality, similar to those of Phineas Gage, whose symptoms were described more than a century ago and were reinterpreted in the light of recent brain imaging studies and cognitive tests 40 .

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Chopin, Keats, Thoreau, Paginini, Modigliani, Elizabeth Browning, and Thomas Wolfe died of tuberculosis. y W y In the beginning of the 20th century, tuberculous meningitis was common then after the Second World War a dramatic decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis occurred in the United States and Europe. Tuberculosis and CNS tuberculosis continued to be prevalent in developing countries. Beginning, however, in 1985 the incidence rates of tuberculosis began to increase in the United States. This resurgence of disease was concentrated among males, 25 to 44 years of age, and particularly among immigrants from areas with a high prevalence of tuberculosis infection. A marked increase in the incidence of tuberculosis in long-term residents of American nursing homes was also noted. CNS tuberculosis is considerably more frequent in individuals with AIDS and tuberculosis involving other organ systems than in immunocompetent persons with tuberculosis. In some...

Theoretical Models

Following the end of World War II, American scholars (economists, demographers, biologists) began to write both theoretical and empirical analyses describing the potential negative impacts of rapid population growth in developing countries on economic development, political stability, and human welfare.

Waterproofwater vapour permeable materials

High density woven fabrics, the first of which was developed during World War II for pilots who ditched in the sea, and was called Ventile . This is a densely woven Sea Island cotton fabric treated with a stearamido derivative repellent finish Velan PF . It is still used today by RAF pilots, as it has good comfort properties, although the waterproofness is low. Modern analogues are based upon tightly woven microfibre polyester fabrics carrying silicone or fluorocarbon repellent finishes. Many are of Japanese origin and have trade names such as Teijin Ellettes , and Unitika Gymstar (Scott, 1995).

History Of Nuclear Power

The effort to collect the plutonium needed for atomic bombs during World War II was part of a U.S. defense effort, begun in 1942, known as the ''Manhattan Engineer District Project.'' In December of that same year, Enrico Fermi directed a team that produced the world's first nuclear chain reaction. By January 1943, U.S. federal government researchers were overseeing the building of the first atomic bombs at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. On 16 July 1945, the world's first atomic bomb, using plutonium, was exploded in New Mexico. On 6 August 1945, the United States dropped the first nuclear warhead, employing uranium-235, on Hiroshima. Sixty-five thousand persons perished in the blast. Days later, another atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. From 1940 to 1945, the United States spent 2 billion to develop the first atomic bombs used during World War II. Thereafter, the government took 20 years and more than 100 billion in subsidies to develop the first commercial nuclear...

Implementation Strategies The Logics for Intervention

After World War II, the world's population increased substantially, mostly as a result of the decline in death rates in poor countries. As awareness of this change grew in the 1950s and 1960s, population was often portrayed as a serious crisis threatening economic growth in the less developed regions of the world. However, then as now, the arguments in favor of governments adopting specific policies to reduce fertility and promote contraceptive practice have proven controversial. The remarkable aspect of this enduring discussion is that the challenges to neo-Malthusian logics have emerged from quite different quarters over the last four decades.

History and Geography

In his original paper, Derrick speculated that transmission was due to blood-sucking insects and that the organism had an animal reservoir. He identified the bandicoot as a reservoir of infection. However, the wildlife cycle initially suspected by Derrick has not proved to be a significant source of human infection. The domestic animal cycle is far more important and explained the epidemic of Q fever during and after World War II when thousands of troops in the Balkans and Italy were infected.

Near infrared camouflage NIR

This military threat is posed by optical imaging devices which amplify low levels of light, including moon and starlight. Such image intensifiers (lis) can be in the form of compact, lightweight binoculars, monoculars, or low-light television cameras. The earliest ones were developed during World War II (Newark et al., 1996 Ivanov and Tyapin, 1965). Infra-red 'false colour' film cameras can also be used, but are useful only for detecting fixed installations, encampments and assets, but not rapidly moving ground troops (Richardson et al., 1998, Fabian et al., 1992). These imaging devices operate at wavelengths from 700-1,300 nm, just above the visible range. In this waveband the reflectance spectrum for leaves, branches, and grasses rises dramatically from less than 10 at 600 nm up to between 40 and 60 at 1,000 nm. Dyes, pigments and colourants used in the textiles must match the reflectance of this 'chlorophyll rise'. This poses a problem, as very few dyes and pigments exhibit this...

Shaw in The 20th Century

Shaw went on to write Plays for Puritans (1901), which included The Devil's Disciple, Caesar and Cleopatra, and Captain Brass-bound's Conversion. Declaring himself a puritan in the broad sense of adhering to the dictates of conscience, he wrote these three plays as studies of conscience. In these plays he continued to see the stage as a means of social criticism on which he could broadcast his belief in the evils of capitalism, romanticism, and traditional morality. Other famous plays include Major Barbara (1905) and Pygmalion (1913), both of which were eventually made into motion pictures. Shaw's Heartbreak House (1917) is a somewhat pessimistic portrayal of disillusionment and ends with the outbreak of World War I. His monumental Back to Methuselah (1921) is a five-play collection that explores human progress from Eden to a science fiction future. In Saint Joan (1923), Shaw created a heretical Saint Joan of Arc whose brilliant monologues make the play one of his most popular. He was...

Flames heat and flash protection

Personnel operating in confined spaces such as armoured vehicles, ships, submarines and aircraft are at high risk of burns, as are ground troops exposed to nuclear weapons. The main threats to tank crews are detailed in Table 21.9 This equates the threats with their typical heat fluxes and estimated survival times for no injury to occur (NATO Standardisation Group, 1992). In addition, fires in confined spaces produce toxic products which can kill, and smoke which hinders escape. Modern thermoplastic fibres can melt and drip injuring humans, and spreading the fire in furnishings and fittings. See further details in Chapters 11 by Song and Chapter 15 by Horrocks.

Demographic Risk Indicators Sex and

Among adults aged 35 years and older, perhaps as a sign that drug-taking patterns acquired in adolescence and young adulthood are being carried over into middle-age (e.g., see United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services, 1993, 2000). Johnson and Gerstein (1998) have drawn attention to some impressive differences that can be seen in the illegal drug experiences of different cohorts within the United States since World War II Golub and Johnson (2001) have stressed more recent birth cohort experiences, and also draw attention to subgroup variation in birth cohort drug experiences within the United States, with a specific focus on the gateway progressions from alcohol and tobacco to marijuana and other illegal drug use.

Is Nuclear Testing Dangerous

So, nuclear testing is impermissible, due to condition (2), if the testing leads to a form of deterrence that is less effective, because a less effective form of deterrence creates a greatly increased risk of harm to others, in that it entails an increased likelihood of nuclear war. This is true whatever the intention with which the testing is carried out. The tester may seek to make deterrence more effective by impressing the opponent or by increasing weapons reliability, as well as by seeking to develop a new form of deterrence strategy, but if the result is a less effective form of deterrence, the testing is impermissible in any case. Let us assume for the moment that counterforce deterrence practiced by established nuclear powers and nuclear deterrence practiced by new nuclear proliferators are less effective than the forms of deterrence they replace. Does nuclear testing lead to these less effective forms of deterrence Clearly it does in the case of new nuclear proliferators for...

The Little Galleries of the Photo Secession 291

Now the Photo-Secession Group not only had a name but it had a place and a future. The formal name soon morphed into '291.' The gallery opened in 1905 and closed in 1917 when World War I began. Stieglitz saw the space as a laboratory rather than a commercial art gallery. And what did this lab look like Enter the narrow building and go to the top floor in a small, creaky, man-operated elevator. Step into a space defined by three rooms with a vestibule leading into a small art gallery, a 15 foot-square room, in the center is a table with a very large copper bowl holding dried flowers. The room is unpretentious but elegant. Steichen chose the colors for 291 - olive painted walls with warm olive-gray burlap pleated drapery covering the lower half of the walls the two other rooms maintained the muted color palette and introduced pure white moldings and woodwork to offset the subdued color scheme.

Prevalence and incidence of disturbances of sexual functioning

Walker and Jablon (1961) report that in a large sample of World War II veterans with head injury (739 men) the vast majority (87 ) had no complaint about their sexual functioning subsequent to the injury. Eight percent complained of impotence or reduced libido, four reported an increase in sexual desire, and 14 reported other problems regarding their sexual appetites. The frontally injured subjects tended to have more sexual complaints than individuals injured in other brain regions. At the 25-year follow-up (Walker, 1972), an unspecified number of wives complained of diminution of sexual functioning in their spouses and wondered whether anything might be done to enhance his sexual interest (p. 8).

Synchronicity in Biology

The case of the blue tits is an example. Over time, ornithologists noticed that small blue tit birds learned to pierce the tops of milk bottles left on the doorstep in the morning in Great Britain. The phenomenon was first reported in 1921. By 1947 the behavior had been noticed throughout Europe. Blue tits do not usually travel far from their homes and live only two or three years. In the Netherlands, milk delivery had been all but stopped during the Second World War. When milk delivery resumed in 1947 and 1948, the blue tit behavior also resumed. Sheldrake used this as an example of how organisms remember habits established by previous generations.

The phenomenon of temporally graded retrograde amnesia

A method used to probe H.M.'s memory for personal events involved a test originally designed to access remote autobiographical memories. In this test, subjects were given concrete nouns and asked to relate them to some personally experienced event from any period in their life, and to describe when the event occurred. In addition, to assess the consistency of these memories, the test was readministered on another day. Normal subjects provided memories from throughout their life span, including especially the most recent time period. By contrast, the memories that H.M. retrieved to these cues all dated back to the age of 16 (i.e., 1942) or younger. Thus, he had no memories of the end of World War II or of his high school graduation (1947), or any other event onward. These data provided the strongest evidence that his retrograde amnesia extends back 11 years prior to his surgery. Note, however, that because this time frame corresponds with the onset of H.M.'s seizure disorder (that...

The Complexity of Tagorean Creativity

As he grew in years, he steadily cut his way through derision and occasional patronage to recognize that the proportion of praise to blame was very much like that of land to water on our earth. The Nobel Prize, which he was awarded in 1913, brought to him an immense burden of loneliness. This was not only the recognition of his literary achievements but was also evidence of the impact of his personality on western contemporaries. During the World War I and for more than a decade thereafter, Tagore was hailed by the West and the East alike as a seer and a sage. Receiving the Nobel Prize was a turning point of his life.

The Natural Healing Process

After World War II, we discovered a group of medications called antibiotics that would kill disease-causing bacteria. These medications saved lives then and still do today. The challenge for us is that the magic-bullet solution to disease has some downsides namely, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the side effects these medications may have.

Contribution of Ego Psychology

Since Freud, other psychoanalytic authors have dealt with the problems of artistic form and content and made their own significant contributions to our understanding. Notable among them is Ernst Kris, who was an art historian in Vienna at the eminent Kunsthis-torisches Museum before becoming a psychoanalyst and who emigrated to New York in advance of the Nazi terrors of World War II. In a classic essay called Aesthetic Ambiguity ' Kris 1952) tackled the complex relationships that exist between artistic production and aesthetic response. I Ie asked how these two experiences are linked. Picture once more an artist who, during the process of creation, simultaneously plays the role of her own work's first consumer and critic. Imagine her as a painter standing motionless, brush in hand, contemplating her canvas for long moments in silence. Physically inert, she is hard at work. She is communicating with her painting as its initial beholder. Here we have a condensed image of the problem...

Substantive Issues Population Policy Rationales and Definitions

The priorities and methods adopted by nation-states to reach policy goals (whether designed and implemented with or without the help of the private sector) have changed markedly over recent decades. Following the end of the Second World War, a global, macrodemographic strategy prevailed. Its aim was to reach rapidly global quantitative objectives, mostly by curbing fertility. At that time, the field of demography experienced a marked shift from a social science to a policy-oriented science (Hodgson, 1983). This interventionist streak was thereafter reinforced by the emergence of the so-called Population Movement in the United States during the 1960s (Donaldson 1990 Harkavy 1995). However, the overall approach advocated by states and international organizations was later viewed to have neglected the rights and aspirations of individuals and couples (United Nations 1995).

Implementation Approaches

The medical discoveries of Jenner, Pasteur, and Fleming that contributed to the reduction of mortality in Western Europe have also helped to bring a survival revolution to the territories of European settlement and to the other continents. Before the Second World War, colonial powers as well as independent governments in Latin America and Asia had enacted public health measures, launched sanitation and disease vector control programs, and organized targeted campaigns to bring down high mortality levels, notably in cities. For example, specific programs were organized to eradicate malaria, as was done successfully in Sri Lanka in the 1940s through the use of DDT, with strong international support (Livi-Bacci 1992). After the Second World War, a vast network of international organizations specialized in family planning and population issues emerged, to a large extent under the impulse of the Population Movement in the United States.9 The United Nations Population Commission was...

Implementation Results

With regard to fertility, the use of modern contraceptive methods by hundreds of million of couples throughout the world testifies to the remarkable success that has been achieved in addressing fertility issues since the end of the Second World War. In 2002, the world contraceptive prevalence rate (the percentage of women married or in a union, aged 15 to 49, using a modern or traditional contraceptive method) was 61 (68 in industrialized countries and 49 in developing countries, excluding China). Globally, 9 out of 10 users rely on a modern method. However, 120 million couples still do not have access to services (World Bank 2000). Female sterilization, IUDs, and the pill represent more than two-thirds of the use of modern contraception worldwide. Contraceptive prevalence remains the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa (only one couple out of five uses a method, traditional or modern). In the developing world, the widest gap is between sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean...

Etiology and Epidemiology

Low rates of type I DM are found among New World Asian-derived native populations (Eskimos, Aleuts, and Amerindians), as well as Old World Asian populations, including the Japanese and Chinese. Prevalence rates vary considerably on the Indian subcontinent. Rates are lower in the southern part of India (i.e., Bombay) than in northern India (i.e., New Delhi). K. M. West (1978) cites a number of studies indicating an increased prevalence of type I diabetes among populations that previously showed low rates. Increases are particularly marked among Japanese, black Africans, and black Americans. In general, these increases are associated with a Westernization in life-style since World War II. Dietary Factors. Calories are units of energy derived from food, and high caloric intake and low caloric expenditure are both related to obesity. Diabetes rates appear to have increased markedly in a number of countries wher caloric consumption per capita has also increased. These countries include...

Accounting for Amniocentesis

By the time of World War I, the international European and American collaborative effort to study genetics had come of age. Its focus was on sexual reproduction via reduction division involving chromosomes its objects of study were chromosomes on which still invisible but posited genes were known to be lodged its methods were at once microbiological, biochemical, and statistical (Hubbard 1990 Kevles 1985, 1992 Levins and Lewontin 1985 Lewontin 1991 Olby 1990 Spanier 1995). While the highly visible chromosome quickly became an international consensus object of scientific investigation, genes have had a more checkered history To this day, scientific debates about the relation of genetic information and organismic development remain intense, replaying earlier scientific controversies in a molecular register (Keller 1995, 1996, 1999 see also Kitcher 1992 Olby 1990a, 1990b Portin 1993). It is within this international collaborative scholarly network and its debates that Lejeune's discovery...

The dynasty of the disk

Bone Setting

The first surgeons made the diagnosis of disk prolapse on hard neurologic signs. Their successors soon relied on symptoms alone, partly because of the risks and costs of early myelography. These moves away from the early strict criteria unleashed on an unsuspecting public a wave of surgical enthusiasm held back only by World War II. Key (1945) caused a furore at a meeting of the Southern Surgical Association in 1945 by claiming that intervertebral disk lesions are the most common cause of low back pain with or without sciatica. Even the published discussion was heated. Magnuson retorted this was no more logical than saying that all kittens born in an oven are biscuits

The Social Origins of Distress

These arguments imply a number of empirical questions. The most basic one concerns the impact of de-traditionalization and individualization on mental health. Life course theorists have provided evidence of a de-standardization of the life course in the latter part of the 20th century in both Europe and the United States (Bruckner & Mayer, 2005 Buchmann, 1989 Heinz, 1991 Held, 1986 Mayer, 2004 O'Rand & Henretta, 1999 Shanahan, 2000). Although there is little direct evidence concerning the psychological effects of such de-standardization, the research does suggest an increased turbulence in life in comparison to the 30-year Golden-Age following World War II (Mayer, 2001 Myles, 2003). Twenge (2000, 2002) does not identify de-traditionalization or individualization as causes of increased rates on anxiety and depression among cohorts born after 1970, instead pointing to weakening of social bonds and non-economic environmental dangers however, the increases in anxiety and depression...

Opportunistic and Iatrogenic Infections

During World War II, for example, ringworm symptoms disappeared in prisoners held under starvation conditions only to reappear on the restoration of a full diet. Tinea capitis (M. audouinii) in children, although persistent, resolves spontaneously at puberty for reasons not fully understood. Tinea pedis has been claimed as an occupational disease of workers who wear heavy boots. Candida infection is affected by pregnancy, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes are frequently associated with it. Iatrogenic mycoses have resulted from the use of antibacterials. Moreover, immuno-suppressive drugs used in organ transplantation have resulted in Candida endocarditis and my-cotic septicemia. Antimycotic therapy is now a routine supplementary practice.

History of Ulcerative Colitis

Worldwide attention was directed to the disease at the 1935 International Congress of Gastroenterology, and the amount of literature increased rapidly after this. By the 1940s, ul-cerative colitis was recognized more often than Crohn's disease. However, by the end of World War II, Crohn's disease had become more frequent. Concurrently with an apparent stabilization of ulcerative colitis in the United States, Crohn's disease has been the more prominent.

Rationale and Indications for Hemithyroidectomy

Before 1945, thyroid cancers were more aggressive tumors in most other parts of the world except Japan. This is probably because in Japan there was high iodine intake as a result of the consumption of seaweed and seafood. In the United States, the addition of iodine to table salt, bread, and water was begun in the 1920s and 1930s, and in European countries it was added after the end of World War II. Currently, most of the Western countries have become iodine sufficient, and some even iodine rich, such as the United States. Whereas the biologic characteristics of thyroid cancers have remained virtually unchanged in Japan, there have been considerable changes in clinical and survival patterns in patients with thyroid cancers in the United States.2646 In iodine-rich areas, approximately 90 of all differentiated thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin are papillary thyroid carcinomas, and of these, approximately 90 are low-risk cancers.20

Mandible Reconstruction

Mandible reconstruction remains one of the most challenging problems faced by the reconstructive plastic surgeon. Major advances in reconstruction of the jaw were derived from extensive clinical experiences centered around 2 historical events (1) treating traumatic injuries to the face during World Wars I and II, and (2) increased experience with surgical treatment of tumors involving the mandible. In addition, development of better bony fixation techniques and prosthetic rehabilitation encouraged reconstructive surgeons to look into newer methods of mandible reconstruction. Techniques to reconstruct the mandible were initially developed around the turn of the twentieth century, using nonvascularized autologous bone grafts. Donor sites included iliac crest, rib, and tibia. During World War I, external fixation and secondary delayed mandible reconstruction was described.1 During the Second World War, both internal wiring to stabilize bone grafts and antibiotics further contributed to...

Textiles for respiratory protection

Due to the use of toxic gases for the first time in the First World War the requirements of respiratory filtration changed over the twentieth century. For this reason, in 1914, the development of filtration materials was connected with the absorption of toxic substances, and filters were manufactured with the use of charcoal and fibrous materials. In 1930 there was another discovery, which changed the approach to the design of filtration materials. Hansen, in his filter, applied a mixture of fibres and resin as filtration materials. This caused an electrostatic field to be created inside the material. It was the action of electrostatic forces on dust particles that significantly increased the filtration efficiency of the materials manufactured by drawing and trapping the particles. The brief historical sketch presented above highlights how textile fibres were one of the original material components used to protect the respiratory tract, and have been applied for as long as the need...

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